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  • SOP for retinal imaging acquisition and functional assessment
  • Certification of imaging systems and photographers at clinical sites
  • Certification of equipment and technicians as part of retinal functional testing
  • Study design and analysis
  • Data transfer and storage of retina images and functional test data , including Internet Portal for uploading of retinal imaging data
  • Image analysis with customized, automated software
  • Classification of disease markers


Key expertise

Given our long-lasting experience in the design, conduct and analysis of both natural history studies and interventional trials, the key expertise of GRADE is geographic atrophy secondary to AMD. Further strength is the establishment of a reliable and robust Internet Portal for communication with both clincial sites and the sponsor (upload, download and storage of imaging data). Furthermore, we have established grading databases with complex design, involving multiple subreading centers. The quick turnaround time and reliable data provision has been particularly appreciated by sponsors in the past.


Imaging systems

  • Fundus camera photography, including color photography
  • Fluorescein angiography
  • Indocyanine green angiography
  • Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy, including fundus autofluorescence imaging, near-infrared reflectance, dual-wavelength autofluorescence, quantitative autofluorescence
  • Optical coherence tomography (Stratus, Cirrus, Spectralis, Topcon, Copernicus, Optovue), including optical coherence tomography angiography
  • Fundus-controlled perimetry
  • Dark adaptometry